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APA: 7th edition

This guide will help you with APA formatting, references, and in-text citations.

APA components

Scroll down or click on the hyperlinks in this box to see more information on the following topics:

1. Formatting

2. Reference List

3. In-text Citations

4. How to put everything together into a final product

a. Annotated bibliography 

b. Sample paper - Student

c. Sample paper - Professional


The bottom of this guide also has a Frequently Asked Questions section. If you have questions, please do not hesitate to ask us.  

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You are invited to a research party!

Working on a paper?  Looking for credible information for an assignment?  Have questions about APA? Want assistance with writing? 

Library staff and English faculty will be available to work with you and your classmates on things like research, citations, and writing.  You can drop-in with your assignment and join the festivities. See the Campus Events Calendar on the portal for the RSVP sheet and Zoom links.


Upcoming Research Parties

  • Wednesday, November 9 from 6:00-7:00pm through Zoom
  • Friday, November 11 from 12:00-1:00pm through Zoom


If you have any questions, please contact Amy Snyder, Education Librarian, at


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Introduction to Citing Sources

This video provides an overview of citing, including why to cite and some vocabulary you might encounter.

APA 7th edition overview

These resources provide a general overview of APA Style.  See the boxes below for more information on formatting, reference lists, in-text citations, and sample documents.

Source: Excelsior Online Writing Lab (includes transcript)


Suggested links for examples and more information below


 Make sure to check your assignment sheet and rubric to see if your professor has any specific requirements, such as a specific font for your paper.  The information in this box is for student papers.  There is information about professional papers below.


This video covers setting up your paper in Microsoft Word.  See boxes below for more specific information on references and in-text citations.

Source: Kevin Doyle


This video covers setting up your paper in Google Docs.  See boxes below for more specific information on references and in-text citations.

Source: Kevin Doyle

Reference List

All APA references follow the same format of the following four elements: Author, Date, Title, and Source.  What is included in those elements will vary based on the kind of source it is, such as a book, article, website, etc.  The links below provide examples.  If you are not sure what example to use as a template, please reach out for assistance.

Missing information?

In-text Citations

 The information below explains how to create in-text citations, which can be either parenthetical or narrative.  Creating your references first, will help you identify components that you will also use in your in-text citations.

Source: Excelsior Online Writing Lab (includes transcript)


Suggested links for examples and more information below

Annotated bibliography

An annotated bibliography is a reference list that also includes annotations after each entry. The video in this box provides background information on annotated bibliographies and the links below provide examples.  See chapter nine in the Publication Manual of the American Psychological for more details.

Sample paper - Student

 Make sure to check your assignment sheet and rubric to see if your professor has any specific requirements for your paper.

Sample paper - Professional

 Only use this format if your professor requests it.  Otherwise, use the sample student papers for guidance.

Frequently Asked Questions

Question:  My source does not have page numbers and I want to quote from it.  How do I write the in-text citation?

Answer: See this page from the APA with other options:


Question: I have multiple reference entries with the same author and year.  How do I write the in-text citations?

Answer: You will add a letter on the reference list and the corresponding in-text citations.  See this page from the APA for examples:


Question: How do I cite clinical practice references (UpToDate, Cochrane's, clinical practice guidelines, drug information, etc.)?

Answer: See this page from the APA :


Question: When should I include the name of a database in a reference?

Answer: See this page from the APA:

Databases available from PA College that might fall into this category, depending on what you use from them, include: APA PsycExtra, Cochrane’s, DynaMed, ERIC, Lexi-Comp, Made Incredibly Easy, Natural Medicines, Nursing Reference Center Plus, Rehabilitation Reference Center, and UpToDate


Question: How do I cite an image?

Answer: See this page from the APA:


Question: How can I reuse a chart, graph, or other figure from a scholarly work, such as a journal article?

Answer: See this page from University of Oregon Libraries: See chapter seven in the APA manual for more information.


Question: How do I cite something from my professor (lecture notes, PowerPoints, etc.)?

Answer: See this page from the APA:


If you are not sure how to cite something, please reach out.  We can help.

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